Extended Trading Hours

Extended hours trading involves material trading risks and is not subject to all of the same rules as regular trading hours. For example, the Trade Through Rule (discussed above) does not apply during extended hours trading. As a NASDAQ member, we are required to make the following disclosures to you in connection with such trading:

(a) Risk of Lower Liquidity. Liquidity refers to the ability of market participants to buy and sell securities. Generally, the more orders that are available in a market, the greater the liquidity. Liquidity is important because with greater liquidity it is easier for investors to buy or sell securities, and as a result, investors are more likely to pay or receive a competitive price for securities purchased or sold. There may be lower liquidity in extended hours trading as compared to regular market hours. As a result, your order may only be partially executed, or not at all.

(b) Risk of Higher Volatility. Volatility refers to the changes in price that securities undergo when trading. Generally, the higher the volatility of a security, the greater its price swings. There may be greater volatility in extended hours trading than in regular market hours. As a result, your order may only be partially executed, or not at all, or you may receive an inferior price in extended hours trading that you would during regular markets hours.

(c) Risk of Changing Prices. The prices of securities traded in extended hours trading may not reflect the prices either at the end of regular market hours, or upon the opening of the next morning. As a result, you may receive a price in extended hours trading inferior to the price that you would receive during regular market hours.

(d) Risk of Unlinked Markets. Depending on the extended hours trading system or the time of day, the prices displayed on a particular extended hours system may not reflect the prices in other concurrently operating extended hours trading systems dealing in the same securities. Accordingly, you may receive an inferior price in one extended hours trading system than you would in another extended hours trading system.

(e) Risk of News Announcements. Normally, issuers make news announcements that may affect the price of their securities after regular market hours. Similarly, important financial information is frequently announced outside of regular market hours. In extended hours trading, these announcements may occur during trading, and if combined with lower liquidity and/or higher volatility, may cause an exaggerated and unsustainable effect on the price of a security.

(f) Risk of Wider Spreads. The spread refers to the difference in price between what you can buy a security for and what you can sell it for. Lower liquidity and higher volatility in extended hours trading may result in wider that normal spreads for a particular security.

(g) Risk of Lack of Calculation or Dissemination of Underlying Index Value or Intraday Indicative Value (“IIV”). For certain Derivative Securities Products, an updated underlying index value or IIV may not be calculated or publicly disseminated in extended trading hours. Since the underlying index value and IIV are not calculated or widely disseminated during the pre-market and post-market sessions, an investor that is unable to calculate implied values for certain Derivative Securities Products in those sessions may be at a disadvantage to market professionals who are able to make such calculations.

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